- GetIt Packages Project Dependencies
- Delphi Blogs of the Week/Month #44
- Delphi Blogs of the Week/Month #44
- Weak and Unsafe Interface References in Delphi 10.1 Berlin
- Closing the Class Helpers Private Access Loophole
- Webinar Video about Submitting Apps to Mobile Stores
- Delphi Blogs of the Week/Month #43
- What’s wrong with virtual methods called through an interface
- System.ByteStrings for 10.1 Berlin
- IDE Fix Pack 5.95 for Delphi 10.1 Berlin
- DDevExtensions and DFMCheck for 10.1 Berlin
- Faster Compilation for Delphi Win32 Generics in 10.1 Berlin
News, Blogs, and Tips
We have created numerous videos that will help you take your existing Delphi, C++Builder and RAD Studio based projects and move the forward fast! Here are just a few of the many videos that will show you how easy it is to use 10 Seattle editions to modernize your applications.
- Update Your Apps UI/UX with the All New Windows 10 Look and Feel
- How To Skin VCL Apps with Custom VCL Styles
- What’s New in FireMonkey 10 Seattle
- Unlocking the Windows Runtime on Windows 10
- Integrating New WinRT and Windows 10 Platform Features Into Your App
- Using Sensors in Windows 10 with Delphi
- Composite VCL Controls Deep Dive: Manual Creation, Templates, Frames, and Sub-Components
- Amazon Web Services Programming with Delphi
- DataSnap Deep Dive: Building N-Tier Applications
- Flexible and Supercharged Key Hashing with Tdictionary
- Parallel Programming Deep Dive: Task Monitoring, Locking, Pools, Patterns and more!
- FixInsight Deep Dive: Squashing Bugs with Static Code Analysis
- Enterprise Mobility Services - Creating EndPoints, Push Notifications and Custom Logins
- LiveBindings From Forms to Code
- What’s New in FireMonkey 10 Seattle
- Migrating your C++Builder Projects to Unicode
- Move your C++ projects to C++Builder 10 Seattle
- Integrate New WinRT Windows 10 Platform Features Into Your C++ Apps
- App Tethering for VCL and FireMonkey using C++
- C++11 Development for Windows, iOS and Android
- DataSnap Deep Dive: Building N-Tier Applications
- Update Your Apps UI/UX with the All New Windows 10 Look and Feel
- FireDAC Migration Made Easy: BDE, dbExpress, AnyDAC to FireDAC
- Enterprise Mobility Services - Creating EndPoints, Push Notifications and Custom Logins
Both Delphi and C++Builder
- Windows 10 Look and Feel for VCL and FMX - Al Mannarino
- Windows 10 VCL Support - Al Mannarino
- Five New VCL Controls - Sarina Dupont
- Delphi Anonymous Methods and C++ Lambdas – when to use them and not use them
- Intro to NoSQL with MongoDB and FireDAC
- Using InterBase Events and Change Views with Callback Functions
If you find a topic that you need that isn’t covered, let me know. You can send me an email (email@example.com) or post a comment on my blog.
I’ve just received an email announcing a new release of Fast Reports for FireMonkey. In honor of the Chinese New Year 2016, the year of the Red Monkey, FastReports, Inc. said: What have we prepared for the Chinese New Year - the year of red fire monkey? The new version of FastReport for FireMonkey!
- Added support of Embarcadero RAD Studio 10 Seattle includes compatibility fixes for new FMX framework
- Added support of Embarcadero RAD Studio XE7 for both Delphi and C++Builder developing environment
- Implemented Line spacing for Text object (LineSpacing property)
- Added Custom realization of ProcessMessages function for cocoa(One from FMX framework doesnt work correct). Fix for freezes of preview window and slow down during report preparation.
- What is the Delphi component that you can’t live without?
- The on demand replay for the "Extreme Cross-Platform .NET with Delphi Prism 2011" webinar is now available at http://forms.embarcadero.com/forms/AMUSCA1006DelphiPrism20116-2.
- I’ve always been a big Jeff Duntemann fan, because he’s a great writer, an interesting guy, and because he’s been a Pascal/Delphi fan from way back. (I was honored when he sent me an autographed copy of his excellent The Cunning Blood – a book I thoroughly enjoyed – back when the new Turbo products were released.) Anyway, Jeff has a new collection of short stories out called Cold Hands and Other Stories. You can get it on lulu.com – my favorite place to buy books.
- The US Geological Survey built it with Delphi.
If there is a bedrock, bottom line, everyone-should-follow-it-all-the-time rule in programming it is “The DRY Principle” – Don’t Repeat Yourself. This simple rule states that you should write code once and only once, and that you shouldn’t allow the same code to be used all over the place. Or, as the Wikipedia article deftly states: "Every piece of knowledge must have a single, unambiguous, authoritative representation within a system." Put more simply, it means that you shouldn’t have the same thing repeated all over your code, but that you should create a single identifier and use that in the many places where it might be needed.
As a practical matter, the DRY principle in its most basic form tells us that we should, as a matter of course, not use literals in our code, but instead should declare constants (or resourcestring types as we’ll discuss in a minute) and use those instead. That way, if you need to change the value for something, you can do it in a single place instead of having to make multiple, error-prone changes throughout your existing code.
For example: Say you have a system that has an arbitrary number of required repetitions, say 17. You might end up writing a whole bunch of code like this:for i := 1 to 17 do begin ProcessStuff; DoSomeMoreStuff; end;
Now imagine that you have that kind of code all over the place, and then your boss comes around and says "Hey, we need to repeat all that stuff 18 times now, not just seventeen.” Well, if you haven’t followed the DRY Principle, you could very well end up with a lot of code to change. And don’t use search and replace, because what if you change the 17 that is part of a variable name or something? Things could get ugly fast.
Of course, the thing to do is to declare a constant:const NumberOfRepetitions = 17;
and declare your loops asfor i := 1 to NumberOfRepetitions do begin ProcessStuff; DoSomeMoreStuff; end;
and now when your boss switches things up, you have but one simple change to make, and all is well.
Now this is a pretty simple, basic thing to do, but I’m constantly surprised at how often I find myself forgetting to do it. (For instance, if you look through the code for TextScrubber, you’ll probably notice that I need to apply the DRY Principle to the TVersionInfo constructor in uTextScrubberTypes.pas.) You might be surprised how many literals you use in your code. I often take advantage of the syntax highlighting feature to scan code for specific colors for strings and numbers and replace them with constant values as much as possible. For instance, some code from TextScrubber used to look like this:procedure TStraightTextMainForm.InitializeMainFormInformation; var IniFile: TIniFile; begin IniFile := TIniFile.Create(IniFileName); try TextScrubberOptions.ClickChoice := TClickChoice( IniFile.ReadInteger('Options', cClickChoice, 0)); TextScrubberOptions.ShouldTrim := IniFile.ReadBool(cOptions, 'ShouldTrimText', False); finally IniFile.Free; end; end;
with a bunch of string literals. Instead, now, I’ve declared two constants in the uTextScrubberConsts.pas unitconst cOptions = 'Options'; cClickChoice = 'ClickChoice'; cShouldTrimText = 'ShouldTrimText'; cVersionLangCodePage = '040904E4';
and the new code looks like this:procedure TStraightTextMainForm.InitializeMainFormInformation; var IniFile: TIniFile; begin IniFile := TIniFile.Create(IniFileName); try TextScrubberOptions.ClickChoice := TClickChoice( IniFile.ReadInteger(cOptions, cClickChoice, 0)); TextScrubberOptions.ShouldTrim := IniFile.ReadBool(cOptions, cShouldTrimText, False); finally IniFile.Free; end; end;
Those constants are also used when I write out information to the INI file, so that I can change the value in one place if I need to, and so that I can know that there won’t be any typographical errors in my strings that will cause a bug. The same string value is always going to be used for the INI file entry.
Now let’s take a look specifically at strings. Strings are a bit special because they are very often used to communicate information, and as such, they frequently need to be translated into other languages through the process of “localization”. Windows provides an easy way to do this via string resources, and Delphi provides an easy way to create string resources via the resourcestring identifier. These strings are then created as resources, making them easy to translate. And “easy to translate” can often be, well, translated into “cheaper to translate” and that is a good thing.
Practically speaking, I apply this principle by placing as many const and resourcestring declarations as I can in a single file, thus centrally locating them for easy management and translation. In our case with the TextScrubber project, I’ve created a file called uTextScrubberConsts.pas and put constants and resource string values into it. If you look through the project code, you’ll probably notice that I need to apply the DRY Principle to the TVersionInfo constructor in uTextScrubberTypes.pas, even if it is keeping those constants within the unit.
One question that might get asked is “How do you choose what to make a const and what to make a resourcestring?” My answer is that as a general rule, any string that could change without changing the UI or the functionality of the code, make a const. Any string that, if changed, will trigger a change in UI or translation should be made a resourcestring. There are exceptions to that, of course. More simply, a rule to use that anything that might get translated should be a resourcestring.
Now, this is a pretty simple “pretty good practice” to follow, but for you folks who have not been following this principle, simply doing so can make your code more readable and maintainable.
- One of the cool features of Delphi Prism 2011 is the built-right-into-the-language support for Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). John Moshakis has a nice blog post giving an example of exactly the kind of things that Aspects can to do make your code cleaner and easier to maintain: providing a data and domain object validation aspect. And he demonstrates it in a Silverlight application and using MVC. All in Delphi Prism. Which you can buy right now. Cool. I tell you, it’s never been a better time to be doing Delphi Programming.
- By the way,I am now making it my personal mission to put the phrase “DelphI Programming” into every one of my blog posts.
- If you are really into Delphi Programming, and would like to gain some insight into your code, you might be interested in the special reduced price being run by the folks at Peganza for their Pascal Analyzer 5.
- Yea! More Delphi Code Golf!
- The topic of newsgroup participation came up in our Delphi.non-technical group, and I mentioned that it appears that more people seem to be using StackOverflow to get answers to their questions. Craig Stuntz turned around and in his own inimitable way, proved that such is the case. I know that I check StackOverflow a couple of times a day, and try to make modest contributions. I endeavor to vote for good answers and to give good answers when I can. The cool part is that if you are only interesting in Delphi Programming questions, you can really make it “DelphiOverflow” by simply paying attention to the correct tags.
- Speaking of stuff on StackOverflow, Robert Love pointed out something I hadn’t seen before on there: Code-Golf. This is a question that asks a small development problem, and then folks post their answers in their favorite languages using as few characters as possible (low score wins, like in golf). Kind of fun. Robert threw in a Delphi answer for this question, and he inspired me to post my own Code Golf problem. So, if you are so inclined, I’d love to see a Delphi solution, though I’m sure it will be tough to compete with some of the command line scripting languages. Next time I’ll make the criteria be a command line EXE.
- Forgive me, but I found this quite funny. Please note the text bubble near the end. Now if she had decided to use Delphi, well, that might have been a different story. I am also reminded that Jack Bauer uses Delphi – and I strongly recommend against crossing Jack Bauer.
- I’ve mentioned that there is a new version of Delphi Prism – and one of it’s new features is the ability to put some C# code on the clipboard and paste it as Prism code. If any of you is interested in automating the process, there is a command line version of that tool available.
- Oh, and don’t worry, I haven’t given up on the “Pretty Good Practices” series. I’ve got a few drafts in the queue, but they are a bit tougher to write than the Random Thoughts items.
- Delphi Prism 2011 is now available for purchase. There are some very cool features in it, the biggest of which is integration into Visual Studio 2010 and complete support for the .Net 4.0 framework. It also includes CodeSite Delphi Prism Edition, which gives you an amazing view into your code. And here is another cool thing: Buy RAD Studio 2010 and get a free upgrade to Delphi Prism 2011.
- Delphi Programming is now at #9 with two up green arrows, and Objective-C has shot like a bullet into the Top 10.
- I think some of you have been hearing about the Tool Cloud. We have a web page that talks about it, including some PDF’s for your reading pleasure. Delphi and RAD Studio are going to become part of the Tool Cloud in the coming releases, and so you might want to check it out. Let me clear, though, that if you aren’t interested in the Tool Cloud, you don’t have to participate. You’ll still be able to get your Delphi like you always have. But if you are interested in the Tool Cloud for RAD Studio, there is a lot of interesting stuff going on there.
- Have you signed up for Delphi Live yet? We are looking forward to seeing you there.
- More good stuff from Marco about the under-appreciated (and under-utilized, even by us) Help Insight feature. For the record, I have provided copious Help Insight comments for TSmiley. I actually found it rather fun to write the comments, and I personally don’t mind them in the code and don’t view them as “clutter”. A cool IDE feature would be to “auto hide all XMLDoc comments” or something like that.
I had occasion to write a little routine called CoinFlip:function CoinFlip: Boolean; begin Result := Random > 0.5; end;
I don’t know why I found it mildly amusing. And I bet someone will tell me that it is slightly biased in one direction. Because it is. Anyway, thought you all might enjoy it, too.
- DataRage 2 is going on right now, and it is not too late to get involved.
- Delphi Prism 2011 will be generally available very soon, and Marc Hoffman has a good rundown on what you’ll get in this significant release. My favorite part is the support for VS2010 right as this new version is out. You give up nothing and get a lot with Delphi Prism.
- I thought this taxonomy of developer types was particularly insightful. Which one are you?
- Does your high school or university teach Delphi?
- Did I mention this earlier? We are conducting a survey to learn about the application development market – what are the challenges developers face as well as the technologies and tools they’re using. It’s not “The Delphi Survey”, but instead a more general survey about developers, processes, etc. We’d love your input.
- And if you are interested in the broader perspective about where Embarcadero is headed, you might be interested in this press release about our new XE line of products. RAD Studio will eventually become an “XE Product”, and so it should be of interest to you all. You can learn more about it via what is currently going on with some of the DatabaseGear tools in this video.
- This guy on StackOverflow has a question about the best desktop development platform. Maybe you guys have some suggestions for him.
- Did I post this link to an article in SDTimes about Delphi Prism 2011? One of the cool additions to the product is the integration of CodeSite Prism Edition from Raize Software. CodeSite allows you to get a very deep, intimate look at how your code is running and what it is doing, enabling you to get a better idea where problems may lie and how your code can work better for you and your customers. And it is included with your purchase, upgrade, and subscription. The full CodeSite product also works with Delphi and C++Builder, so if it proves useful, consider upgrading so you can use it with all your RAD Studio projects. Sweet!
- Hey, Delphi for PHP now has a “brainstorming” site for letting you input what you’d like to see in the next version. If you are Delphi for PHP customer, or thinking about being one, stop by and let us know what you think.
- I think a bunch of you have been to CodeRage before. Starting tomorrow we are running another DataRage. And it isn’t too late to register. This is a good opportunity to get a look at the DataGear side of the tool chest.
- “The board "highly recommended" switching to Pascal/Delphi because it is stable and was designed to teach programming and problem solving.”
- Cary Jensen has an interesting survey up on his blog, asking about how much you use the “non-core” features of RAD Studio. Now this is an interesting question. He’s asking particularly about the unit testing, audit, metrics, and design patterns features on the product. Now these are some unheralded features, particularly the audits and metrics. Cary’s a little inaccurate in that while the Together product did go with Borland, the codebase that was Together for Visual Studio and which was eventually adapted into the RAD Studio IDE came with us to Embarcadero and continues to advance and evolve. In fact, the modeling and the accompanying features like audits, metrics, and the code formatter are all alive and quite well and being improved as we speak. But in any event, I’ll be curious to see the outcome. Please do go and fill out the survey, and if you aren’t using those features, please give them a look. There is a lot of power there.
- I did a podcast with Jim McKeeth for The Delphi Podcast. Unfortunately, it stopped recording in the middle, so I guess it will be a two parter.
- I’ve been using Evernote more and more these days. Interesting service, and free for up to 40MB a month, which is far more than I’m using now. I haven’t upgraded to their Premium services yet, but I can see that coming. It’s really just a cloud app – I can make and view notes on the web and my computer, and then view them on the web, my Android phone, anywhere.
The next principle for the “Pretty Good Practices” we’ll discuss is this notion: Whenever possible and as much as possible, put functionality in a class – preferably a class that can be easily unit tested, reused, and separated from any user interface.
TextScrubber demonstrates this via the use of the TTextScrubber class in the uTextScrubber.pas unit. TTextScrubber is a simple TObject descendant that does all the work for the whole application, really. It is a standalone class – you could take the uTextScrubber.pas unit and use it in most any project you cared to. Because of this, it is also very easy to write unit tests for this class. (We covered unit testing in my previous series “Fun with Testing DateUtils.pas”, but I’ll discuss Unit Testing in a later post in this series as well.) The class attempts to follow the “Law of Demeter”, which says that classes should know as little as possible about outside entities. The three principles of the Law of Demeter are as follows:
- Each class should have only limited or hopefully no knowledge of other classes.
- If a class must have knowledge of other classes, it should only have connections to classes that know about it as well.
- Classes should never “reach through” one class to talk to a third class
In the case of TTextScrubber, it only knows about and utilizes the TClipboard class and nothing else. It doesn’t try to grab things out of TClipboard or attach to or require any other class. It pretty much minds its own business, utilizes the services of the clipboard, and provide an easy way to get at its functionality. It endeavors to do one thing: scrub text, by both straightening and “un-formatting” it. It has short, sweet method bodies, and ensures that it doesn’t try to do too much beyond exactly what it is supposed to do. Following the Law of Demeter tends to make your code more maintainable and reusable. By reducing dependencies, you ensure that a class is as flexible as possible and that changes to it don’t tend to have far reaching consequences.
So, to as large a degree as possible, you should endeavor to put the functionality of your program into classes. One way to tell you are not doing this is if you tend to do “OnClick” programming, or relying on event handlers to do the work of your application. The Pretty Good Practices way of programming would dictate that your event handlers would contain code that merely instantiated and used other classes instead of having the actual code in them to do the work of your application.
So for instance, most of the work in TextScrubber gets done in an OnClick event of the TTrayIcon component. That code looks like this:procedure TStraightTextMainForm.MainTrayIconClick(Sender: TObject); begin MainTrayIcon.Animate := True; case TextScrubberOptions.ClickChoice of ccStraightenText: begin DoStraightenText; end; ccScrubClipboard: begin DoPurifyText; end; end; end;
It merely calls one of two functions, DoStraigthenText or DoPurifyText, that scrub the text on the clipboard. Those two methods look pretty much the same – they merely create a TTextScrubber, use it, and then free it. DoStraightenText looks like this:procedure TStraightTextMainForm.DoStraightenText; var TS: TTextScrubber; begin TS := TTextScrubber.Create(TextScrubberOptions.ShouldTrim); try TS.StraightenTextOnClipboard; finally TS.Free; end; end;
This method is very simple and to the point — it utilizes the TTextScrubber class to do the work. It’s not always entirely possible, but I try to make as many of my event handlers and methods follow this pattern of merely utilizing the functionality of external classes. Doing so enables a few things:
- It means that functionality is much easier to unit test. Isolated classes with specific functionality make unit testing really easy.
- Functionality is easier to share and reuse. An isolated, decoupled class can easily be moved to new applications as it has few or no dependencies.
- Lean event handlers mean that your user interface isn’t tightly coupled to the work code. This means that adjusting or altering your UI is easier to do, and adjusting and altering the work code doesn’t mean a change in the way the UI works.
So, to sum up – always try to build standalone classes to do the work or your application.
- Delphi Prism 2011 is coming soon, and you can read more about it at SDTimes. Or maybe you are more of an InfoWorld guy and want to read their article about it.
- If you are a RemObjects customer, you might be interested in testing their Public Chat system.
- As part of my “Pretty Good Practices” series, I talked just a bit about naming conventions. One of the commenters pointed out this classic EDN article by Charlie Calvert that outlines a “Style Guide” for writing code. I want to stress that I’m a firm believer that there is no one true way to style your code. I have a way I like to do it, but your way is great, too. The important thing is to have a set of rules and stick to them.
- For everybody who reads our newsgroups via NNTP: Make sure that your newsgroup reader is pointed to forums.embarcadero.com and not to a *.codegear.com address.
- The Delphi for PHP “look aheads” done by Jose continue apace. There are a lot of cool things coming out of those videos. Give them a look.
Okay, hopefully by now you’ve read the introduction of this series, and you’ve downloaded (or better yet, pulled from source control) the latest version of TextScrubber and given it a once over. In this installment, I’m going to discuss the file structure of the project and why I did things the way I did.
First, an admin note: I’ve made some small changes to the code for TextScrubber. You can get these by going to the main directory for your code and typing svn up. They aren’t any big deal – comments, some cleanup and organization, but it sure is easy to get the latest changes, isn’t it.
Taking a look at the file set that makes up the TextScrubber project, you see a number of different files, each with a particular purpose. I’ll describe each file in turn, telling what its purpose is and why it exists. Future installements will go in depth a bit more.FileName
frmAboutBox.pas Every Application should have an About Box. The About Box should display the Application Icon, give Version information, copyright notices, and contain a short description of what the application is or does. frmStraightText.pas This is the “main form” for the application, but since TextScrubber doesn’t have a main for, but it simply a container for some non-visual controls. frmTextScrubberOptions.pas Every application should have a single dialog that allows the user to set all the configurable options and preferences for the application. NixUtils.pas NixUtils.pas is a general purpose file of handy utilities and routines that I’ve built up over the years. I use it in TextScrubber, so I’ve included it in the project. Normally, I keep this file in a separate directory. uTextScrubber.pas This is the “workhorse” unit that contains the class that does all the work of the application. uTextScrubberConsts.pas This file has one and only one purpose: To hold all the constants for the project. It will include all constant declarations, as well as the strings declared with resourcestring. uTextScrubberTypes.pas This file contains all the types declarations for the project, including classes, enumerations, records, etc. uTextScrubberUtils.pas This file contains those little, standalone, “helper” routines that you use to build the product. Routings that go into this unit are often considered as candidates to end up in NixUtils.pas, but most often, they are very specific to a purpose of the project. A Note About Naming Conventions
For this project, I’ve used a pretty simple naming convention. For filenames, I put ‘frm’ at the front of forms, ‘u’ at the beginning of standalone units. DataModules would get ‘dm’. Constants start with ‘c’, and resourcestrings start with ‘str’. Parameters are prefixed with ‘a’, and all local variables (well, almost all) are prefaced with ‘Temp’. Those latter two help keep things straight inside class methods. I try to make my identifiers descriptive, and I never worry about their length. A well named identifier makes code clearer, and Code Completion can do all the work if you are worried about typing. (But in my view, you should never worry about typing if typing less means writing unclear code…..)
I use those as a general set of rules, but I’m not dogmatic about it. I try to be consistent for my and your benefit. The exact rules of naming aren’t nearly as important as having a naming convention. My recommendation is to find a system that you like and stick with it. Naming conventions are a great source of religious debates. I generally leave that to others, and simply recommend that you find something that works for you and stick with it.More Detail to Come
I’ll be talking a bit more specifically about each of the files in future installments. This entry should just give you a brief rundown on the basics.
Okay, so for this first installment, I’ll be illustrating one of my core principles for developing applications: All my code of any importance at all goes under source control. All of it.I’m all by myself – why should I use source control?
We ask about source control use on the annual survey, and a surprisingly large percentage of you are not using source control at all. That as a bit of a surprise. If you are working on a team of any size, using source control is a no brainer. But even if you are working alone, using source control is a really good idea.
Why, you might ask? Well, there are a number of good reasons:
- It’s good to be in the habit. Sure, you may be working alone. But in the future you may not be. Or your “weekend hobby project” might turn into a popular project with many developers. If anything like that happens, being in the habit of using source code control will stand you in good stead.
- It protects your code. Since your code is stored in on a server apart from your development machine, you have a backup. And then, you can even backup the code on the server. Sure, you can zip it all up any time you want, but you don’t get all the other benefits I’m listing here.
- It can save your butt. Sometimes, you might accidently delete something. You might make mistakes and change code that you didn’t want changed. You might start off on some crazy idea when you are feeling a bit saucy, and then regret it. Source control can save you from all of these by making it a piece of cake to revert to any previous state. It’s like a really powerful “undo” feature.
- It allows you to “turn back time”. Say you are a shareware author. You like to release updates and new versions. And say you get a support request from a customer that has a bug while using a version that is two major releases old. Source control lets you easily recreate the code base for that exact release and debug the problem that the user is seeing.
- It makes you think about your process. Even if you work alone, you should be deliberate and organized in how you write code. If you are in the habit of checking your code into a source control system, you’ll end up thinking more about what you are doing, how you are doing things, and you’ll end up being more organized and deliberate.
- It gives you the freedom to experiment. Somewhat the mirror image of the previous reason, source control gives you the freedom to say “What the heck, I’ll try that wacky way of doing things!” Since you know that you can always get back to a known good state, you can be free to experiment and try something that might otherwise hesitate to do. And that experiment might just prove to be a brilliant way to do it.
- It lets you backtrack. Even when we work alone, we can’t remember every single thing we do and every single change we make. And I bet at least once in your life you’ve looked at some code and said “Huh? When the heck did that happen?” With a source control system, you can answer that question very easily. You can track where a specific change came from and when it was made and maybe even the comment you made when you checked the change in.
- It lets you see what changed. Sometimes, things start acting up. Maybe a section of your application that you haven’t used in a while is behaving differently than you expected. Maybe it is totally broken and you have no idea why. Source control can let you track the process and peer into the history of a specific chunk of code to see what changes were made and how those changes affected the project as a whole.
I’m sure you all can think of more reasons. Bottom line is that if you aren’t using source control, then you should start, no matter what your development situation is. ZIP files just aren’t going to cut it. Seriously.Okay, I’m convinced. What now?
I’m convinced that my points above are so compelling that you are in violent agreement with me, so I’m going to make you use the Subversion client to get the code for this series’ demo project, TextScrubber. TextScrubber is only available from SourceForge under Subversion. If you don’t use Subversion for source control, you should at least have the command line client on your machine, because Subversion is everywhere, and you should at least know how to get code from code repositories that use it. I know that there are other well known source control management systems out there. Git and Mercurial are growing in popularity, but Subversion is probably the most widely used source control system out there. We use Subversion internally here on the RAD Studio team.Getting the Subversion Command Line Client
So the first thing you’ll need to do is to get the Subversion client. (If you already have the client, you can skip this whole section) A whole lot of projects out there — whether on SourceForge or GoogleCode or CodePlex — use Subversion, so having the client is pretty useful. It’s also small and easy to use, so here’s how you get it:
- I’d recommend getting the binary package from Collabnet: In order to do that, you’ll have to get an account with them. You can sign up here: http://www.open.collab.net/servlets/Join If you don’t want to do that, you can get the binaries here as well: http://subversion.tigris.org/servlets/ProjectDocumentList?folderID=91
- Go to: http://www.collab.net/downloads/subversion/ and choose the second download entitled: “CollabNet Subversion Command-Line Client v1.6.9 (for Windows)”
- There is a big orange button there that says “Download”. Note again that this is the second button on that page as we are downloading the client only.
- Press the button and download the file.
- Execute the installer that you downloaded.
There, you just installed the Subversion client. The path to the client should now be on your DOS PATH (if it isn’t, you can put it there) and you should be all ready to go on the command line.
Note: Subversion has only very recently been brought under the umbrella of the Apache Project. As such, it is licensed under the very friendly Apache License, Version 2.0. It was originally founded by Collabnet, but moved over to be a part of the Apache set of tools just this past February. It is open source, so if you are really hard core, you can download the source and compile it all yourself. Me? I’m not that hardcore. I use the convenient binaries provided by the good folks at Collabnet.Grabbing the Code for TextScrubber
Once you have the command line Subversion client installed (it’s called svn.exe, by the way), you can easily download the code for TextScrubber. Seriously, it’s like falling off a log. Just do the following:
- Open a command window and go to the parent directory where you want the code to go. For instance, if you want the code to go into c:\code\textscrubber, you want to start with your command prompt at c:\code
- Issue the following command:
svn co https://textscrubber.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/textscrubber/trunk textscrubber
‘co’ stands for ‘checkout’. The second parameter is the URL for the ‘tip’ of the Subversion repository. This command will pull from SourceForge the most recent version of the code into the \textscrubber\trunk directory. That last parameter there is the name of the subdirectory that will be created and filled with the code from SourceForge.
That’s it. You now have the most recent, up to date code for TextScrubber on your machine. You are all ready to start straightening and unformatting text!Using Subversion
In the future, if I make updates to the project, then all you need to do is to navigate to the \textscrubber\trunk directory and do a “7up” or "svn up" command, and it will get the latest and greatest code for you in a jiffy. Can’t be much simpler than that. That’s the command you’ll end up using the most, probably.
Since it is so popular and commonly used, there is a lot of information about using Subversion out on the web. I’ve found this tutorial to be very useful, as well as the book (written by the same guys that wrote the tutorial..): Version Control with Subversion
Another useful tool for using Subversion is TortoiseSVN. TortoiseSVN is a Windows shell plug-in that provides all the functionality of the Subversion client in an easy to use GUI. Below is a screen shot of the TortoiseSVN Log Window for the TSmiley project on SourceForge.
TortoiseSVN is also an open source project, so you can get it for free. If TortoiseSVN proves to be valuable to you, I’d also encourage you make a generous donation to the project. I did.Getting and Setting Up the Subversion Server
If you make the wise and sagely decision to go ahead and use source control for all of your code, you can easily set up the Subversion server. You can, of course, download the Collabnet binaries and install them, but if you want to go the pathetically easy route (which I recommend), you should download and install Visual SVN Server. I’m not even going to go through the steps to installing the server, because they are not much more than download, run the install, and you are done. That’s it. It takes like two minutes. Seriously. They even provide you with a nice Management Console application for administering the server, making that really easy as well.
(And while you are looking at VisualSVN Server, you can consider upgrading to their Enterprise edition.)
Now, I myself run the full server (Apache, etc. – the whole ball ‘o’ wax….) on my local machine and use it to manage my code. This enables me to browse my code in a browser and do other things that are supported by a full blown server But that might be a bit of overkill for some of you (I’m weird that way – I just want the “full” experience and like to be in learning mode…) and you might not want to do that. Instead, you can simply create local repositories on your local disk. The Subversion tutorial above can show you how to do that.
I have been using the server locally since I use a laptop exclusively and move it between work and home. But I think I’ll set up the server on a machine at home and check in there. That way, my code will be stored on a separate machine.More About Source Control
As you can probably tell, this post isn’t meant to be a primer on Subversion or source control in general. The tutorial I listed above is a good place to learn about Subversion. If you want to learn more about source control in general, I recommend reading Source Control HOWTO by Erik Sink. Eric is a really interesting guy who has a great blog and also runs SourceGear, a commercial vendor of developer tools including Vault, a source control management tool that I recommend considering. You might be interested to note that Vault is free for single users.That’s it.
And so that is the first “Pretty Good Practice” for developing with Delphi: Manage your code with a source control system.
So, what do you think? Are you ready to make the move to source control management?
A while back someone (I can’t remember who, sadly, sorry to the person who made the suggestion…) suggested that someone do a series of articles about “the best practices on how to develop a Delphi application”. That’s a good idea. There are a lot of ways to do things, and clearly there are some good way and some bad ways, some okay ways and some really cool ways to develop with Delphi.
This series of articles will cover my personal ideas behind a good way to organize and build a Delphi application. I’ll build a small application that does a few things. I’ll organize the application in such a way that it illustrates some techniques that I believe are a good way to organize things. I will explain my reasoning and in doing so I hope that you guys learn something. This won’t be an exhaustive list or collection of ideas.
What I will not do is pretend that what I do and the way I do it is the only way to do things. Heck, it may be that you end up thinking the way I do things is ridiculous. I’ll let you all be the judge of that. If you guys have different ideas, please feel free to express them. If you like what you see, let me know. I’ve been using Delphi for a long time, and so I think I’ve learned a thing or two along the way, but I’m not the world’s greatest Delphi developer and I certainly won’t claim to be the final arbiter of how things should be done. I generally don’t like the term “Best Practices”, so I’ve titled this using “Pretty Good Practices”.
My goal here, really, is to be informative and stimulative and to evoke conversation and discussion. I have developed a way of doing things over the years and I’ll be outlining them in this series of articles. I don’t believe that this series will be all inclusive – that is, I won’t be covering every single aspect of every single development practice that I’ve ever thought of. Again, I hope merely to stimulate some discussion and do my humble part to improve the way Delphi applications are developed.
The application I’ll use as an illustration is one that I use practically every day. I call it “TextScrubber”, and it is a simple application that resides in the tray and let’s me “clean up text”, either by removing formatting, removing line breaks, or both. I use it when I copy text from the web or from an MS Word document that contains formatting information that I in turn want to paste into another document when I don’t want the formatting to come along. I copy the text, click on the icon in the tray, and the text is “scrubbed” and put back on the clipboard. (It is basically a much simpler version of PureText – a product that I heartily recommend that you use if you want this kind of functionality.) TextScrubber is actually a very simple application with not a lot of code, but I’ve laid it out in such a way that it illustrates many of the methods that I have developed over the years. Thus, I hope it will suffice to illustrate the things I want to discuss.
To start, I’ll talk about a few general ideas that drive how I do things. These are the general ideas that drive what I do when I develop:
- Any code of consequence at all should be managed under source control, even if I am the only one using and writing the code. I use Subversion for this. I actually run the Subversion server on my local machine, but you don’t need to do that. You can manage a Subversion repository merely as a set of local files, if you want. But even if you develop all alone, I think using source control is a great idea.
- I want everything I write to be easily expandable and scalable. I try to organize and write code that can easily be extended and enhanced. I try to write classes that have a sensible hierarchy and that can be easily inherited from.
- I want my code to be testable. I want to write it in such a way that it is conducive to writing unit tests. I want it to be easy to isolate and easy to find problems if they crop up.
- To as large a degree as possible, I separate the logic of an application from the user interface. I don’t go full bore into an MVC application usually – that almost requires a special framework, but I do try very hard to separate out functionality into separate, testable classes.
- I want my code to be well modularized. That is, I want each class and each unit to have a single purpose, and be linked to other units and classes as loosely as possible.
What would you add to this list? What are some of the general rules you try to follow when developing an application?
SamContacts is a “Simple Address Manager” that enables you to quickly and easily manage your contact information.
- Delphi Prism is on Channel 9. David I give a quick rundown on Delphi Prism working in Visual Studio 2010.
- Joe Meyer alerted me to a German guy who has done a bunch of Delphi tutorials (in German…). Looks pretty good. (And while you are over on YouTube, be sure not to miss the Annoying Orange. He’s really, really annoying.)
- Have you signed up for the expanded Delphi Developer Days in the United States?
- Delphi for PHP is getting an update, and Jose has more information on his blog – particularly Preview #1, Preview #2, Preview #3, and Preview #4. Looks pretty cool to me. While you are at it, you can follow along on Twitter: http://twitter.com/qadram.
- The Blaise Pascal magazine has a free article online from our very own Michael Rozlog. Mike gives a great rundown on some of the more advanced tools in Delphi including modeling and audits/metrics. There is a lot of power there, and I think that a lot of Delphi developers don’t take as much advantage of that power as they should.
- For those of you who want a bit more on Test-driven Development, you might want to give a look to the DelphiXtreme blog.
Okay, first up: I’ve put the tests and updates for DateUtils.pas on CodeCentral.
So far, I’ve been writing tests in a pretty organized way. But I write each individual test, one at a time. I often end up writing a lot of “piece-meal” tests by hand. I end up with a lot of code that looks like this:procedure TDateUtilsTests.Test_IncMinuteBeforeEpochAdding; var TestDate, Expected, TestResult: TDateTime; begin TestDate := EncodeDateTime(945, 12, 7, 13, 34, 26, 765); TestResult := IncMinute(TestDate, 1); Expected := EncodeDateTime(945, 12, 7, 13, 35, 26, 765); CheckTrue(SameDateTime(TestResult, Expected), Format('IncMinute couldn''t add a single minute to %s ', [DateTimeToStr(TestDate)])); TestResult := IncMinute(TestDate, 45); Expected := EncodeDateTime(945, 12, 7, 14, 19, 26, 765); CheckTrue(SameDateTime(TestResult, Expected), Format('IncMinute couldn''t add 45 minutes to %s ', [DateTimeToStr(TestDate)])); TestResult := IncMinute(TestDate, MinsPerDay); Expected := EncodeDateTime(945, 12, 8, 13, 34, 26, 765); CheckTrue(SameDateTime(TestResult, Expected), Format('IncMinute couldn''t add a days worth of minutes to %s ', [DateTimeToStr(TestDate)])); end;
Now those tests are fine, but they aren’t very easy to write. Adding another one either takes a lot of typing, or runs the risk of cut-n-paste errors that slow things down. Wouldn’t it be cool if there were a more systematic way of running tests that made it easier to add a specific test?
Well, one of our R&D guys did that for the DateUtils.pas unit. Denis Totoliciu works on the RTL as part of our Romanian team. Now Denis is a pretty smart guy and a big proponent of test driven development. He has been busy writing tests for DateUtils.pas as well, and he’s a lot more efficiency minded than I am. As a result, he’s also a lot more productive and prolific. This is why I am the manager and he is the developer.
If you look at the code for the unit tests, you can probably see where he has written tests and where I have (though I’ll be taking up Denis’s method for future tests). He recognized that most tests for any given DateUtils.pas routine are all going to be pretty similar, so he created a system whereby you create a large array of data, and then iterate over that array and run the tests on the data in each element. This way, if you want to add tests, you can simply add an item to the data array with the input and expected output.
For instance, when he first did this, I noticed that he didn’t always add data to test dates before the epoch. Since I’ve learned the hard way that whenever you test a routine you should also test dates before the epoch as well as after, it was really easy for me to simply add the data to the array and expand the number of tests that were run.
Here’s how this looks:procedure TDateUtilsTests.Test_DayOfTheMonth; const CMax = 16; type TDateRec = record Year, Month, Day: Word; ExpectedDay: Word; end; TDates = array [1..CMax] of TDateRec; const CDates: TDates = ( (Year: 2004; Month: 01; Day: 01; ExpectedDay: 01), // 1 (Year: 2004; Month: 01; Day: 05; ExpectedDay: 05), (Year: 2004; Month: 01; Day: 08; ExpectedDay: 08), // 3 (Year: 2004; Month: 02; Day: 14; ExpectedDay: 14), (Year: 2004; Month: 02; Day: 29; ExpectedDay: 29), // 5 (Year: 2004; Month: 04; Day: 24; ExpectedDay: 24), (Year: 2004; Month: 07; Day: 27; ExpectedDay: 27), // 7 (Year: 2004; Month: 12; Day: 29; ExpectedDay: 29), (Year: 2005; Month: 01; Day: 01; ExpectedDay: 01), // 9 (Year: 2005; Month: 01; Day: 03; ExpectedDay: 03), (Year: 2005; Month: 05; Day: 05; ExpectedDay: 05), // 11 (Year: 2005; Month: 07; Day: 12; ExpectedDay: 12), (Year: 2005; Month: 09; Day: 11; ExpectedDay: 11), // 13 (Year: 2005; Month: 02; Day: 21; ExpectedDay: 21), (Year: 2005; Month: 02; Day: 25; ExpectedDay: 25), // 15 (Year: 2005; Month: 04; Day: 10; ExpectedDay: 10), ); var TestDate: TDateTime; Expected: Word; Result: Word; i: Integer; begin for i := Low(CDates) to High(CDates) do begin TestDate := EncodeDate(CDates[i].Year, CDates[i].Month, CDates[i].Day); Expected := CDates[i].ExpectedDay; Result := DayOfTheMonth(TestDate); CheckTrue(SameDate(Expected, Result), Format('DayOfTheMonth failed for test %d.', [i])); end; end;
Note that the first thing this code does is declare a really big array full of dates (all after the epoch, too). The array is of type TDates, which is simply an array of type TDateRec. All of these types are declared locally, so each routine can have it’s own separated data types. The array holds all the inputs as well as the expected result. Each element of the array is informally numbered, and when one fails, the number of the test is identified by the counter used in the for statement.
Now for me to add a bunch of tests that use data before the epoch is a piece of cake. I merely change the value for CMax and then make the array look like this:const CDates: TDates = ( (Year: 2004; Month: 01; Day: 01; ExpectedDay: 01), // 1 (Year: 2004; Month: 01; Day: 05; ExpectedDay: 05), (Year: 2004; Month: 01; Day: 08; ExpectedDay: 08), // 3 (Year: 2004; Month: 02; Day: 14; ExpectedDay: 14), (Year: 2004; Month: 02; Day: 29; ExpectedDay: 29), // 5 (Year: 2004; Month: 04; Day: 24; ExpectedDay: 24), (Year: 2004; Month: 07; Day: 27; ExpectedDay: 27), // 7 (Year: 2004; Month: 12; Day: 29; ExpectedDay: 29), (Year: 2005; Month: 01; Day: 01; ExpectedDay: 01), // 9 (Year: 2005; Month: 01; Day: 03; ExpectedDay: 03), (Year: 2005; Month: 05; Day: 05; ExpectedDay: 05), // 11 (Year: 2005; Month: 07; Day: 12; ExpectedDay: 12), (Year: 2005; Month: 09; Day: 11; ExpectedDay: 11), // 13 (Year: 2005; Month: 02; Day: 21; ExpectedDay: 21), (Year: 2005; Month: 02; Day: 25; ExpectedDay: 25), // 15 (Year: 2005; Month: 04; Day: 10; ExpectedDay: 10), // Before the Epoch (Year: 1004; Month: 01; Day: 01; ExpectedDay: 01), // 17 (Year: 1004; Month: 01; Day: 05; ExpectedDay: 05), (Year: 1004; Month: 01; Day: 08; ExpectedDay: 08), // 19 (Year: 1004; Month: 02; Day: 14; ExpectedDay: 14), (Year: 1004; Month: 02; Day: 29; ExpectedDay: 29), // 21 (Year: 1004; Month: 04; Day: 24; ExpectedDay: 24), (Year: 1004; Month: 07; Day: 27; ExpectedDay: 27), // 23 (Year: 1004; Month: 12; Day: 29; ExpectedDay: 29), (Year: 1005; Month: 01; Day: 01; ExpectedDay: 01), // 25 (Year: 1005; Month: 01; Day: 03; ExpectedDay: 03), (Year: 1005; Month: 05; Day: 05; ExpectedDay: 05), // 27 (Year: 1005; Month: 07; Day: 12; ExpectedDay: 12), (Year: 1005; Month: 09; Day: 11; ExpectedDay: 11), // 29 (Year: 1005; Month: 02; Day: 21; ExpectedDay: 21), (Year: 1005; Month: 02; Day: 25; ExpectedDay: 25), // 31 (Year: 1005; Month: 04; Day: 10; ExpectedDay: 10) );
And now I have a complete set of tests for dates before the epoch. Piece of cake. If I find specific dates that I want to test, then I can easily add those as well. The actual code that runs the tests doesn’t care how many elements there are in the array; it will happily process all the data passed to it. Now, you don’t get to write as many fun error messages as you do when you do it the more straightforward way, but that is a small price to pay for the efficiency gained.
And if a test fails, you are given the test number, and you can see the test data and expected result right away right in the code.
And here’s a further aside for those of you who don’t like me using random dates: this test for EncodeDateDay and DecodeDateDay tests every single day in every single year.procedure TDateUtilsTests.Test_EncodeDateDay_DecodeDateDay; var TempYear, MinYear, MaxYear: Word; RYear: Word; TestDate: TDateTime; RDayOfWeek: Word; TempDay: Integer; RDayOfYear: Word; begin // Test every possible day for every possible year. MinYear := MinAllowableYear; // 1 MaxYear := MaxAllowableYear; // 9999 for TempYear := MinYear to MaxYear do begin for TempDay := 1 to DaysPerYear[IsLeapYear(TempYear)] do begin TestDate := EncodeDateDay(TempYear, TempDay); DecodeDateDay(TestDate, RYear, RDayOfYear); CheckEquals(TempYear, RYear, Format('EncodeDateDay() / DecodeDateDay() failed. TempYear = %d; RYear = %d', [TempYear, RYear])); CheckEquals(TempDay, RDayOfYear, Format('EncodeDateDay() / DecodeDateDay() failed. TempDay = %d; RDayOfYear = %d', [TempDay, RDayOfYear])); end; end; end;
It takes a little longer to process, but it covers every single possible test case, I believe.
So that should cover it. I think I’ll wrap the series up here. I’m almost done writing tests for DateUtils.pas. When I am done, I think I will move on to StrUtils.pas.
Okay, so after that last post, and after all the fixes that I did, things have settled down a little bit. I thought I’d take advantage of this interlude to tell you some interesting things about TDateTime in Delphi, because along the way here, I have discovered a thing or two along that way that was surprising.
The first thing that you might be interested in is that the calendar used by the Delphi TDateTime has a specific name: The Proleptic Gregorian Calendar. Calendars, of course, have been notoriously inaccurate over the years, and even ours isn’t entirely accurate in that we have to have leap years every so often (and not as often as one might believe…). We even have these “leap seconds” every once and a while, though the notion of being able to measure things down that precisely is kind of weird. Starting with the Romans – Julius Caesar, actually – the Western world used the Julian calendar. And that worked pretty well, actually. The Julian calendar worked pretty well – it has 365 days and a leap year every four years – but it wasn’t entirely accurate, and (as you can read in the Wikipedia entry) politics got involved, and the calendar got out of whack pretty easily and pretty often.
So anyway, as you may have noticed, some of the tests that I have written include some pretty big time increments – like 1000 years worth of seconds and things like that. And I also wanted to makes sure that the incrementing routines worked across the epoch of December 30, 1899. So I had to be able to do some pretty serious calculations. I found a pretty good website to do those calculations called timeanddate.com. This site has a bunch of calculators for measuring between dates and time and for calculating a date based on distance from another date. So I used it to figure out what the date was if you decremented two hundred years worth of seconds (that’s 6,307,200,000 seconds for you math geeks….) from, say, Noon on June 30, 1945. (It’s not exactly noon on June 30, 1745 due to leap days.) Well, I would calculate it, and then write the tests, but they would fail because my expected result was always eleven days different than the test result. Eleven days – how weird, huh?
Well, here’s the deal. Somewhere along the way, the really smart guys who figure out this kind of thing came up with a new calendar – the Gregorian calendar. It’s different from the Julian calendar, and starting in the 16th century, the world gradually converted over to use the Gregorian Calendar instead of the Julian calendar (A good chunk of Europe started in 1582, and the last folks to make the switch were the Russians who didn’t change until 1918). But to do that, you usually had to skip about 10 or 11 days. Great Britain and all of its possessions (including the colonies that would become the United States) made the switch in 1752. Therefore, in the English world, the day following September 2, 1752 was September 14, 1752. There was no September 3 – 13, 1752. Just didn’t exist. Once I discovered that, it explained the missing eleven days.
But what does this mean for our trusty TDateTime? For a minute there I was afraid that I was going to have to do all these special calculations to account for this unusual anomaly, but then I came to my senses and realized: That can’t be right. And I was right. Instead, Delphi uses, as I mentioned above, the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar – that is, it assumes that the Gregorian calendar is in force all the way back to January 1, 0001. So for TDateTime, there is a September 4, 1752 (Noon on that day is the value: -53807.5) and every single date “like normal” all the way down to Year 1. This makes sense, because trying to devise a calendaring system that keeps track of all the vagaries of the Julian calendar system would be basically impossible. Instead, Delphi uses a system that “makes sense” for a computer. A number of other languages and tools use the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar, including MySQL and PHP.
That was probably more than you wanted to know about TDateTime, but it’s all stuff that you have to know to write a complete test suite for DateUtils.pas. So far, that summarizes the issues that I’ve run across in testing the unit. I have a ways to go to have a complete test suite, but if I run across more issues, I’ll post on them.
The next post I do will be about a testing scheme that one of our developers, Alexander Ciobanu, devised to make writing tests for testing date functions a little easier.